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Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences

Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences


Manuscripts are submitted online via the ejmanager editorial platform accessible through or the Journal website ( The authors are entirely responsible for the accuracy of data and statements. It is also the responsibility of authors to seek ethical clearance and written permission from persons or agencies concerned, whenever copyrighted material is used.

The following is a step by step description of the expected outlook of prepared manuscript.

Manuscripts Formatting 

The text should be typed using double-space in Microsoft word format. The text should be in single-column format using Arial narrow font size 12. Manuscripts should be written in clear and concise English. It is important to leave a margin of at least 2.5 cm at the top, bottom, left and right margins. Scientific and non-English name(s) should be italicized. Line number in the manuscript should be continuous.


Titles (not more than 15 words) should be concise and informative. Abbreviations and formulae should be avoided where possible. The title page of manuscript submitted online should not include the names of author(s) and affiliations. However, details required on the journal online platform should be in the format: Initial(s) followed by Surname, professional affiliation and the complete address (including e-mail), telephone number of the corresponding author. Contact details should be kept up to date by the corresponding author.

The prepared manuscript should contain the following sections: Abstract, Introduction, Materials and Methods, Statistical analysis, Results, Discussion, Conclusion, Acknowledgements, and References.


A single block abstract not exceeding 200 words should precede the introduction. The abstract should be structured to reflect the background and purpose of the study, methods, main results/findings and conclusion. Reference should not be cited in the abstract. Also, non-standard or uncommon abbreviations should be avoided, but if essential they must be defined at their first mention in the abstract itself.

Keywords: Provide 4-6 words which identify with the subject of the study for indexing and information retrieval purposes.


This section should include concise background information on the study taking into account readers without specialist knowledge in the area. The background must state clearly, the problem being addressed, justification and objectives of the research.

Materials and Methods

A comprehensive and straight forward description of procedures and techniques should be provided in this section to permit repetition of the work. Methods adopted should be adequately acknowledged, supporting documents should be provided for novel methods developed by authors.

Statistical/Data analysis

This section should be a brief description of how generated data was processed and presented.

Results and Discussion

Take note that this section may be presented as Results followed by Discussion or combined as Results and Discussion. The results should be presented concisely in the following formats: Tables, Figures or Plates, etc. should be preceded by descriptive notes (not discussion). Do not repeat all the data provided in the tables or figures in the preceding text; only important observations should be emphasized. Extensive interpretation of the results should be reserved for the discussion section.

The discussion should provide an in-depth interpretation of the results and relate them to existing knowledge in the field. It should not contain extensive repetitions of the results but be structured  to capture: definitive statement of principal findings, strengths and weaknesses in relation to existing knowledge in subject area,  meaning of the study in theory and implications in practice.


This section is a summarized presentation of major findings of the research. The conclusion should be a clear and concise declarative statement of what was achieved, i.e. the outcome of experimentation. Reference citations and explanatory notes are highly discouraged in this section. The way forward (recommendation) may be included in the conclusion section

Figures, Tables and Plates

Each illustration should have a caption which should comprise a brief title (not on the figure itself) and a description of the illustration. Table caption should be written on top of the Table, while caption of Plate and Figure should be written below. Tables should not contain more than three horizontal lines. Legends and/or key should provide additional information on Tables, Figures, Plates, etc.  All symbols and abbreviations used should be defined. Figures, Tables and Plates should be numbered consecutively in accordance with their appearance in the text by use of Arabic numbers. Example: Figure 1:….…, Figure 2: ………, Figure 3: …………….., etc. All Plates, Figures and Tables should be referred to in the text, and placed as close as possible to where first mentioned in the manuscript. Example: Results of students’ performance in Geography exams are presented in Table 1.


NJBAS adopts the APA referencing style for its publications. References must be properly cited in the manuscript and fully listed in the list of reference section. Spelling of surname(s) and year of publication should be consistent in both cases. Initials of author(s) should not be used while citing references, nor is the use of et al. allowed in the list of reference section (where authors do not exceed 7). All references should be listed alphabetically.  Titles of journals should be in full. References to theses, abstracts, unpublished data, personal communication and manuscripts in preparation not yet in press should be excluded from the list.  Reference to such sources should appear parenthetically in the text. 

Examples of reference citations are as follows:

In-text Citation:

(a) More than one reference from the same author(s) in the same year must be identified by the letters 'a', 'b', 'c', etc., placed after the year of publication.

Groups of references should be cited/listed first chronologically and should be separated by a semi-colon. Examples: (Allan, 1999, 2000a, 2000b; Allan and Jones, 1999; Jatau et al., 2015; Sam and Andy, 2002).

(b). Single author: author's surname and the year of publication. Example:

(Jatau, 2016) or Jatau (2016)...

(c). Two authors: both authors' surnames and the year of publication. Example:

(Jatau and Ibro, 2016) or Jatau and Ibro (2016)...

(d). Three or more authors: first author's surname followed by 'et al.' and the year of publication. Example: Geer et al. (2016) or (Geer et al., 2016)

List of References/Bibliography

1. Journal publication

Anomohanran, O. (2014). Determination of the Protective Capacity of the Aquitard Stratum in Some Coastline Towns of Delta State, Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences22(1&2): 11-17.

Bala, A. Y. and Sule, H. (2012).Vectorial potential of cockroaches in transmitting parasites of medical importance in Arkilla, Sokoto, Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences20(2), 111-115.

Muhammad, A. S., Saidu, Y., Bilbis, L. S., Onu, A., Isezuo, S. A. and Sahabi, S. (2014). Effect of Dried Lake Salt (Kanwa) on Lipid profile and Heart Histology of Female Albino Rats. Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences22(3&4): 73-78.

Online article impress (no volume or issue number)

Mohammed, M. L., Mbeleck, Patel, D.R., Niyogi, D., Sherrington, D.C. and Saha, B. (2014).Greener and efficient epoxidation process. Chemical Engineering Research and Design, DOI: 10.1016/j.cherd.2014.08.001. 

2. Reference to a book

Strunk Jr., W., White, E.B., (2000). The Elements of Style, 4th ed. Longman, New York, Pp. 85

3. Reference to a chapter in an edited book

Mohammed, M. L. and Saha, B. (2016). Greener and Sustainable Approach for the Synthesis of Commercially Important Epoxide Building Blocks Using Polymer-Supported Mo(VI)Complexes as Catalysts, In: Sengupta, A. K. (ed). Ion Exchange and Solvent Extraction : A Series of Advances, Volume 22, 1st edition, CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group, USA. 

4. ebook:

Johnson, A. (2000). Abstract Computing Machines. Springer Berlin Heidelberg. Retrieved March 30, 2006, from Springer Link DOI: 10.1007/b138965.

5. Published Conferences, seminars and meetings

Eidenberger, H., Breiteneder, C. and Hitz, M., (2002).'A Framework for Visual Information Retrieval', in S-K. Chang, Z. Chen & S-Y. Lee (Eds.), Recent advances in visual information systems: Proceedings of 5th International conference on Computing Technology, Hsin Chu, Taiwan, March 11-13, 2002, 105-116.

6. Patent

Moore, M. L., Yamashita, D., (1998). An array of separate reactor cells containing a solid reaction support medium. Smithkline Beecham Corporation, US Patent 5792431.


Reviewed manuscripts are published only if a charge of Thirty five Thousand Naira  (N35,000.00) (or $150.00 for international contributors) only payable to the Editor-in-Chief, Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, Nigeria. Manuscript in excess of 12 typed, double spaced pages on A4 paper may attract additional charge of One Thousand Naira (N1000) (or $8.00) per page. Photographs and plates especially coloured would be surcharged the cost of off-setting in addition to normal page charges.  All contributors shall pay the sum of six thousand Naira (N6,000.00 or $50.00 for international contributors) only as handling charges.

Proofs:  Galley-proofs will be sent to the author of correspondence.  They should be returned within 48 hours of receipt after correction. Corresponding Author will receive one copy of the published journal via posting. Additional copies may be purchased at 75% of the cost if ordered when the proofs are returned.

Book Reviews: Editors and publishers of books in Basic and Applied Sciences are invited to send copies of their publications to the Editor-in-Chief.  Book review charges range from five to twenty thousand naira (N5,000.00– N20,000.00).

Subscription rates for a single issue:

Individual: Nigeria        N3000.00

                 Africa           $50.00

                 Others         $80.00

Institutions:Nigeria       N5000.00

                   Africa $100.00

            Others $150.00

Advertisement rates:

Full page                       N75,000.00/$300

Half-page                      N45,000.00/$200

Quarter page                 N25,000.00/$100

Inside front/back page    N100,000.00/$400


All editorial correspondence should be addressed to the Editor-in Chief, Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, Faculty of Science, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, P.M.B. 2346, Sokoto.

Correspondence concerning subscription, purchase and advertising should be addressed to the Business Editor, Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, P.M.B. 2346, Sokoto.

The following e-mail addresses can also be used for correspondence:;

The Journal is available online: 


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